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Tuesday, September 21, 2010

DU'WAH (supplications) from Quran & Hadith


1:5 - Thee do we worship and Thine aid we seek. 21

21 On realizing in our souls God's love and care, His grace and mercy, and His power and justice (as Ruler of the Day of Judgment), the immediate result is that we bend in the act of worship, and see both our shortcomings and His all-sufficient power. The emphatic form means that not only do we reach the position of worshipping God and asking for His help, but we worship Him alone and ask for His aid only. For there is none other than He worthy of our devotion and able to help us. The plural "we" indicates that we associate ourselves with all who seek God, thus strengthening ourselves and strengthening them in a fellowship of faith. (1.5)

1:6 - Show us the straight way. 22

22 If we translate by the English word "guide," we shall have to say: "Guide us to and in the straight Way." For we many be wandering aimlessly, and the first step is to find the Way; and the second need is to keep in the Way: our own wisdom may fail in either case. The straight Way is often the narrow Way, or the steep Way, which many people shun (xc.11). By the world's perversity the straight Way is sometimes stigmatized and the crooked Way praised. How are we to judge? We must ask for God's guidance. With a little spiritual insight we shall see which are the people who walk in the light of God's grace, and which are those that walk in the darkness of Wrath. This also would help our judgment. (1.6)

See under “Straight Way”

1:7 - The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace Those whose (portion) is not wrath and who go not astray. 23 24

23 Note that the words relating to Grace are connected actively with God; those relating to Wrath are impersonal. In the one case God's Mercy encompasses us beyond our deserts. In the other case our own actions are responsible for the Wrath, the negative of Grace, Peace, or Harmony. (1.7)

24 Are there two categories? - those who are in the darkness of Wrath and those who stray? The first are those who deliberately break God's law; the second those who stray out of carelessness or negligence. Both are responsible for their own acts or omissions. In opposition to both are the people who are in the light of God's Grace: for His Grace not only protects them from active wrong (if they will only submit their will to Him) but also from straying into paths of temptation or carelessness. The negative gair should be construed as applying not to the way, but as describing men protected from two dangers by God's Grace. (1.7)

See notes under “Wisdom”

2:126 - And remember Abraham said: "My Lord make this a City of Peace and feed its people with fruits such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day." He said: "(Yea) and such as reject faith for a while will I grant them their pleasure but will soon drive them to the torment of fire an evil destination (indeed)!" 127 128

127 The root salama in the word Islam implies (among other ideas) the idea of Peace, and therefore when Mecca is the city of Islam, it is also the City of Peace. The same root occurs in the latter part of the name Jerusalem, the Jewish City of Peace. When the day of Jerusalem passed (see verse 134 or 141 below), Mecca became the "New Jerusalem" - or rather the old and original "City of Peace" restored and made universal. (2.126

2:127 - And remember Abraham and Isma`il raised the foundations of the House (with this prayer): "Our Lord! accept (this service) from us for thou art the All-Hearing the All-Knowing.

2:128 - "Our Lord! make of us Muslims bowing to Thy (Will) and of our progeny a people Muslim bowing to Thy (Will) and show us our places for the celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in mercy); for Thou art the Oft-Returning Most-Merciful.

2:129 - "Our Lord! send amongst them an Apostle of their own who shall rehearse Thy Signs to them and instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom and sanctify them; for Thou art the Exalted in Might the Wise." 129

129 How beautiful this prayer is, and how aptly it comes in here in the argument! Such Paganism or star-worship or planet-worship as there was in Abraham's time was first cleared out of Mecca by Abraham. This is the chief meaning of "sanctification" or purification in ii. 125, although of course physical cleanliness is (in physical conditions) a necessary element of purification in the higher sense. Abraham and his elder son Ismail then built the Ka'ba and established the rites and usages of the sacred city. He was thus the founder of the original Islam (which is as old as mankind) in Arabia. As becomes a devout man, he offers and dedicates the work to God in humble supplication, addressing Him as the All-Hearing and the All-Knowing. He then asks for a blessing on himself and his progeny generally, both the children of his eldest-born Ismail and his younger son Isaac. With prophetic vision he foresees that there will be corruption and backsliding in both branches of his family: Mecca will house 360 idols, and Jerusalem will become a harlot city (Ezekiel xvi. 15), a city of abomination. But the light of Islam will shine, and reclaim the lost people in both branches and indeed in all theworld. So he prays for God's mercy, addressing Him as the Oft-Returning Most Merciful. And finally he foresees in Mecca an Apostle teaching the people as one "of their own", and in their own beautiful Arabic language; he asks for a blessing on Muhammad's ministry, appealing to the Power and Wisdom of God. (2.129)

2:200 - So when ye have accomplished your holy rites celebrate the praises of Allah as ye used to celebrate the praises of your fathers yea with far more heart and soul. There are men who say: "Our Lord! give us (thy bounties) in this world!" but they will have no portion in the hereafter. 223 224

224 If you hasten to get all the good things of the world, and only think of them and pray for them, you would lose the higher things of the future. The proper Muslim attitude is neither to renounce this would nor to be so engrossed in it as to forget the spiritual future. (2.200)

2:201 - And there are men who say: "Our Lord! give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter and defend us from the torment on the fire!"

2:250 - When they advanced to meet Goliath and his forces they prayed: "Our Lord! pour out constancy on us and make our steps firm; help us against those that reject faith."

2:285 - The Apostle believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord as do the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in Allah His angels His books and His Apostles "We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of His Apostles." And they say: "We hear and we obey; (We seek) Thy forgiveness Our Lord and to Thee is the end of all journeys." 337 338 339

339 When our faith and conduct are sincere, we realize how far from perfection we are, and we humbly pray to God for the forgiveness of our sins. We feel that God imposes no burden on us that we cannot bear, and with this realization in our hearts and in the confession of our lips, we go to Him and ask for His help and guidance. (2.285)

2:286 - On no soul doth Allah place a burden greater than it can bear. It gets every good that it earns and it suffers every ill that it earns. (Pray): "Our Lord! condemn us not if we forget or fall into error; our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which Thou didst lay on those before us; Our Lord! lay not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Blot out our sins and grant us forgiveness. Have mercy on us. Thou art our Protector; help us against those who stand against faith." 340 341 342

340 Cf. ii. 233. In that verse the burden was in terms of material wealth: here it is in terms of spiritual duty. Assured by God that He will accept from each soul just such duty as it has the ability to offer, we pray further on for the fulfilment of that promise. (2.286)

341 We must not be arrogant, and think that because God has granted us His favor and mercy we have no need to exert ourselves, or that we are ourselves superior to those before us. On the contrary, knowing how much they failed, we pray that our burdens should be lightened, and we confess our realization that we have all the greater need for God's mercy and forgiveness. And so we end the whole argument of the Sura with a prayer for God's help, not in our own selfish ends, but in our resolve to uphold God's truth against all Unbelief. (2.286)

3:7 - and those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord"; and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding. 347 348

348 One reading, rejected by the majority of Commentators, but accepted by Mujahid and others, would not make a break at the point here marked Waq Lazim, but would run the two sentences together. In that case the construction would run: "No one knows its hidden meanings except Allah and those who are firm in knowledge. They say", etc. (3.7)

3:8 - "Our Lord!" (they say) "let not our hearts deviate now after Thou hast guided us but grant us mercy from Thine own Presence; for Thou art the Grantor of bounties without measure.

3:9 - "Our Lord! Thou art He that will gather mankind together against a day about which there is no doubt: for Allah never fails in His promise." 349

349 This is the prayer of those who are firmly grounded in knowledge. The more they know the more they realise how little they know. But they have Faith. The glimpses they get of Truth they wish to hold fast in their hearts, and they pray to Allah to preserve them from deviating even from what light they have got. They are sure of their eventual return to Allah, when all doubts will be solved. (3.9)

3:16 - (Namely) those who say: "Our Lord! we have indeed believed: forgive us then our sins and save us from the agony of the fire."

3:26 - Say: "O Allah! Lord of Power (and Rule) thou givest Power to whom Thou pleasest and Thou strippest off power from whom Thou pleasest thou enduest with honor whom thou pleasest and thou bringest low whom Thou pleasest; in Thy hand is all Good. Verily over all things thou hast power. 368

3:27 - "Thou causest the Night to gain on the Day and Thou causest the Day to gain on the Night; Thou bringest the Living out of the Dead and thou bringest the Dead out of the Living; and Thou givest sustenance to whom Thou pleasest without measure." 370 371 272

370 True in many senses. In every twenty-four hours, night merges into day, and day into night, and there is no clear boundary between them. In every solar year, the night gains on the day after the summer solstice, and the day gains on the night after the winter solstice. But further, if light and darkness are viewed as symbols of (a) knowledge and ignorance, (b) happiness and misery, (c) spiritual insight and spiritual blindness, Allah's Plan or Will works here too as in the physical world, and in His hand is all Good. (3.27)

371 We can interpret Dead and Living in even more senses than Day and Night: death physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual. Life and Death may also apply to collective, group, or national life. And who has ever solved the mystery of Life? But Faith refers it to Allah's Will and Plan. (3.27)

3:38 - There did Zakariya pray to his Lord saying: "O my Lord! grant unto me from Thee a progeny that is pure; for Thou art He that heareth prayer!" 380

380 The birth of Mary, the mother of Jesus, of John the Baptist, the precursor of Jesus, and of Jesus, the prophet of Israel, whom Israel rejected, occurred in that order chronologically, and are told in that order. They are all inter-connected. Zakariya prayed for no ordinary son. He and his wife were past the age of parenthood. Seeing the growth of Mary, he prayed for some child from Allah,- "from Thee, a progeny that is pure". To his surprise, he is given a son in the flesh, ushered in by a special Sign. (3.38)

3:40 - He said: "O my Lord! how shall I have a son seeing I am very old and my wife is barren?" "Thus" was the answer "doth Allah accomplish what He willeth."

3:53 - "Our Lord! we believe in what thou hast revealed and we follow the Apostle; then write us down among those who bear witness."

3:147 - All that they said was: "Our Lord! forgive us our sins and anything we may have done that transgressed our duty; establish our feet firmly and help us against those that resist faith."

3:191 - Men who celebrate the praises of Allah standing sitting and lying down on their sides and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth (with the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught hast thou created (all) this! Glory to thee! give us salvation from the penalty of the fire. 498 499

498 That is, in all postures, which again is symbolical of all circumstances, personal, social, economic, historical and other. (3.191)

499 It is the thought of Salvation that connects all these glories with man. Otherwise man would be a miserable, contemptible creature in these beauties and wonders of Nature. With his high destiny of Salvation he can be lifted even higher than these glories! (3.191)

3:192 - Our Lord! any whom thou dost admit to the fire truly thou coverest with shame and never will wrong-doers find any helpers!.

3:193 - "Our Lord! we have heard the call of one calling (us) to faith `Believe ye in the Lord' and we have believed. Our Lord! forgive us our sins blot out from us our iniquities and take to thyself our souls in the company of the righteous.

3:194 - "Our Lord! grant us what Thou didst promise unto us through thine Apostles and save us from shame on the Day of Judgment: for thou never breakest Thy promise."

4:75 - "Our Lord! rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from Thee one who will protect; and raise for us from Thee one who will help!" 592 593

593 Even from the human point of view the cause of Allah is the cause of justice, the cause of the oppressed. In the great persecution, before Makkah was won again, what sorrows, threats, tortures, and oppressions, were suffered by those whose faith was unshaken? Muhammad's life and that of his adherents was threatened: they were mocked, assaulted, insulted and beaten; those within the power of the enemy were put into chains and cast into prison; others were boycotted, and shut out of trade, business, and social intercourse; they could not even buy the food they wanted, or perform their religious duties. The persecution was redoubled for the believing slaves, women, and children after the Hijrat. Their cry for a protector, and helper from Allah was answered when Muhammad the Chosen One brought freedom and peace to Makkah again. (4.75)

5:83 - And when they listen to the revelation received by the Apostle thou wilt see their eyes overflowing with tears for they recognize the truth: they pray: "Our Lord! we believe; write us down among the witnesses.

6:161 - Say: "Verily my Lord hath guided me to a way that is straight a religion of right the path (trod) by Abraham the true in faith and he (certainly) joined not gods with Allah."

6:162 - Say: "Truly my prayer and my service of sacrifice my life and my death are (all) for Allah the Cherisher of the Worlds:

7:23 - They said: "our Lord! we have wronged our own souls: if Thou forgive us not and bestow not upon us Thy mercy we shall certainly be lost."

7:126 - "But thou dost wreak thy vengeance on us simply because we believed in the signs of our Lord when they reached us! Our Lord! pour out on us patience and constancy and take our souls unto thee as Muslims (who bow to thy will)"! 1083

1083 These Egyptians, by their patience and constancy, show that their repentance was true. Thus in their case the mission of Moses was fulfilled directly, and their number must have amounted to a considerable figure. They were martyrs to their faith, and their martyrdom affected their nation in two ways. In the first place, as they were the pick of those who practised magic in Egypt, their conversion and disappearance dealt a staggering blow to the whole system. Secondly, the indirect effect of their martyrdom on the commonalty of Egypt must have been far greater than can be measured by numbers. The banner of Allah was planted, and the silent spiritual fight must have gone on ever since, though history, in recording outward events, is silent on the slow and gradual processes of transformation undergone by Egyptian religion. From a chaotic pantheon of animals and animal gods, the worship of the sun and the heavenly bodies, and the worship of the Pharaoh as the embodiment of power, they gradually came to realise the oneness and mercy of the true God. After many glimpses of Monotheism on Egyptian soil itself, the (gospel of Jesus reached them, and eventually Islam.) (7.126)

7:149 - When they repented and saw that they had erred they said: "If our Lord have not mercy upon us and forgive us we shall indeed be of those who perish."

7:151 - Moses prayed: "O my Lord! forgive me and my brother! admit us to Thy mercy! for Thou art the Most Merciful of those who sow mercy!" 1119

1119 As Moses was convinced that his brother was guiltless, his wrath was turned to gentleness. He prayed for forgiveness-for himself and his brother: for himself because of his wrath and for his brother because he had been unable to suppress idolatry among his people. And like a true leader that he is, he identifies himself with his lieutenant for all that has happened. Even more, he identifies himself with his whole people in his prayer in verse 155 below. Herein, again, is a type of what the Holy Prophet Muhammad did for his people. (7.151)

7:155 - "O my Lord! if it had been Thy will Thou couldst have destroyed long before both them and me: wouldst Thou destroy us for the deeds of the foolish one among us? This is no more than Thy trial: by it Thou causest whom Thou wilt to stray and Thou leadest whom Thou wilt into the right path. Thou art our protector: so forgive us and give us Thy mercy; for Thou art the best of those who forgive. 1121 1122 1123 1124

1123 Moses was guiltless, but he identifies himself with his whole people, and intercedes with Allah on their behalf. He recognises that it was a trial, in which some of his people failed to stand the test. Such failure was worthy of punishment. But he pleads for mercy for such as erred from weakness and not from contumacy, and were truly repentant, although all who erred were in their several degrees worthy of punishment. (7.155)

7:156 - "And ordain for us that which is good in this life and in the hereafter: for we have turned unto Thee." He said: "with My punishment I visit whom I will; but My mercy extendeth to all things. That (Mercy) I shall ordain for those who do right and practice regular charity and those who believe in Our signs; 1125 1126

1125 Allah's mercy is in and for all things. All nature subserves a common purpose, which is for the good of all His creatures. Our faculties and our understandings are all instances of His grace and mercy. Each unit or factor among his creatures benefits from the others and receives them as Allah's mercy to itself: and in its turn, each contributes to the benefit of the others and is thus an instance of Allah's mercy to them. His mercy is universal and all-pervasive; while His justice and punishment are reserved for those who swerve from His plan and (to use a mediaeval juridicial formula) go out of His Peace. (7.156)

1126 The personal grace and mercy-and their opposite-are referred to the singular pronoun "I" while the impersonal Law, by which Allah's Signs operate in His universe, is referred to the plural pronoun of authority and dignity, "We". (7.156)

10:10 - (This will be) their cry therein: "Glory to Thee O Allah!" and "Peace" will be their greeting therein! And the close of their cry will be: "Praise be to Allah the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!" 1397

1397 A beautiful piece of spiritual melody! They sing and shout with joy, but their joy is in the Glory of Allah! The greetings they receive and the greetings they give are of Peace and Harmony! From first to last they realise that it is Allah Who cherished them and made them grow, and His rays are their Light. (10.10)

10:85 - They said: "In Allah do we put our trust. Our Lord! make us not a trial for those who practice oppression; 1467

1467 A trial for those who practise oppression: the various meanings of Fitnat have been explained in n. 1198 to viii. 25. The prayer is that the righteous people, being weak, should be saved from being used as objects of oppression or punishment at the hands of powerful enemies. Weakness tempts Power to practise oppression, and is thus an occasion of trial for the oppressors. (10.85)

10:86 - "And deliver us by Thy Mercy from those who reject (Thee)."

10:88 - Moses prayed: "Our Lord! Thou hast indeed bestowed on Pharaoh and his Chiefs splendor and wealth in the life of the Present and so our Lord they mislead (men) from Thy Path. Deface our Lord the features of their wealth and send hardness to their hearts so they will not believe until they see the grievous Penalty." 1469 1470

1469 Moses's prayer, in which Aaron joined, for he was always with him, may be paraphrased thus: "O Allah! we understand that the glitter and the wealth of the Egyptians are not to be envied. They are but the ephemeral goods of this life. They are a disadvantage, in that in their pride of possessions the Egyptians mislead themselves and others. Let their pride be their undoing! Turn their wealth into bitterness and their hearts into hardness, for they reject Thee, and they will not believe until they actually see the Punishment of their sins!" (10.88)

1470 A terrible curse! Let their wealth and splendour become so defaced in their features, that instead of being objects of desire, they become objects of loathing! The heart is the seat of affections and joy: let it be so hardened by their unbelief that it becomes the seat of hatred and grief! It is when they see the Penalty that they will believe! (10.88)

11:45 - And Noah called upon his Lord and said: "O my Lord! surely my son is of my family! and Thy promise is true and Thou art the Justest of Judges!"

11:47 - Noah said: "O my Lord! I do seek refuge with Thee lest I ask Thee for that of which I have no knowledge. And unless Thou forgive me and have Mercy on me I should indeed be lost!" 1541

1541 Noah, in his natural affection and respect for ties of relationship, was overcome with human weakness in wishing to reverse the Decree of Allah. It was not sin but ignorance. His ignorance was corrected by divine inspiration, and he immediately saw the full Truth, acknowledged his error, and asked for Allah's forgiveness and mercy. This is the standard set for us all. (11.47)

12: 101 - "O my Lord! Thou hast indeed bestowed on me some power and taught me something of the interpretation of dreams and events O Thou Creator of the heavens and the earth! Thou art my Protector in this world and in the Hereafter take thou my soul (at death) as one submitting to Thy Will (as a Muslim) and unite me with the righteous." 1781 1782 1783

1782 Power in the doing of things as well as power in intelligent forecasts and plans,-both must look to Allah: otherwise the deed and the plan would be futile. (12.101)

1783 Joseph's prayer may be analysed thus: (1) I am nothing; all power and knowledge are Thine; (2) such things can only come from Thee, for Thou art the Creator of all; (3) none can protect me from danger and wrong, but only Thou; (4) Thy protection I need both in this world and the next; (5) may I till death remain constant to Thee-, (6) may I yield up my soul to Thee in cheerful submission to Thy will; (7) in this moment of union with my family after many partings let me think of the final union with the great family of the righteous. How marvellously apt to the occasion! (12.101)

14:35 - Remember Abraham said: "O my Lord! make this city one of peace and security: and preserve me and my sons from worshipping idols. 1912 1913

14:36 - "O my Lord! they have indeed led astray many among mankind: he then who follows my (ways) is of me and he that disobeys me but thou art indeed Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.

14:37 - "O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley without cultivation by thy Sacred House; in order O our Lord that they may establish regular prayer: so fill the hearts of some among men with love towards them and feed them with Fruits: so that they may give thanks. 1914 1915

14:38 - "O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley without cultivation by thy Sacred House; in order O our Lord that they may establish regular prayer: so fill the hearts of some among men with love towards them and feed them with Fruits: so that they may give thanks. 1914 1915

14:39 - "O our Lord! truly Thou dost know what we conceal and what we reveal: for nothing whatever is hidden from Allah whether on earth or in heaven. 1916

14:40 - "O my Lord! make me one who establishes regular Prayer and also (raise such) among my offspring O our Lord! and accept Thou my Prayer. 1918

1918 Abraham prays for both branches of his family, having a wider vision than some of the later Children of Israel. (14.40)

14:41 - "O our Lord! cover (us) with Thy Forgiveness me my parents and (all) Believers on the Day that the Reckoning will be established!" 1919 1920 1921 1922

1919 Read again n. 1912 above. Having prayed for his progeny, Abraham now prays for Allah's grace on himself, his parents, and the whole Brotherhood of Faith, irrespective of family or race or time, to be perfected in the ideal of Islam. (14.41)

1920 For the shades of meaning in the different words for Forgiveness, see n. 110 to ii. 109. (14.41)

1921 My parents. Abraham's father was an idolater (xliii. 26; vi. 74). Not only that, but he persecuted the Faith of Unity and threatened Abraham with stoning and exile (xix. 46); and he and his people cast him into the Fire to be burned (xxi. 52, 68). Yet Abraham's heart was tender, and he prayed for forgiveness for his father because of a promise which he had made (ix. 114), though he renounced the land of his fathers (Chaldea). (14.41)

1922 At the final Reckoning, all that may seem inequality or injustice in this world will be redressed. But the merits of the best of us will need Allah's Grace to establish us in that lasting Felicity which is promised to the righteous. And Abraham, as the father of Prophecy, prayed for all,-for the Universal Faith perfected in Islam. (14.41)

17:24 - And out of kindness lower to them the wing of humility and say: "My Lord! bestow on them Thy Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood." 2205 2206

2205 Cf. xv. 88 and n. 2011. The metaphor is that of a high-flying bird which lowers her wing out of tenderness to her offspring. There is a double aptness. (1) When the parent was strong and the child was helpless, parental affection was showered on the child: when the child grows up and is strong, and the parent is helpless, can he do less than bestow similar tender care on the parent? (2) But more: he must approach the matter with gentle humility: for does not parental love, remind him of the great love with which Allah cherishes His creatures? There is something here more than simple human gratitude; it goes up into the highest spiritual region. (17.24)

2206 Note that we are asked to honour our father and mother, not "that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee" (Exod. xx. 12), but upon much higher and more universal grounds, such as befit a perfected revelation. In the first place, not merely respect, but cherishing kindness, and humility to parents, are commanded. In the second place, this command is bracketed with the command to worship the One True God. Parental love should be to us a type of divine love: nothing that we can do can ever really compensate for that which we have received. In the third place (see next verse) our spiritual advancement is tested by this: we cannot expect Allah's forgiveness if we are rude or unkind to those who unselfishly brought us up. (17.24)

17:80 - Say: "O my Lord! let my entry be by the Gate of Truth and Honor and likewise my exit by the Gate of Truth and Honor; and grant me from Thy Presence an authority to aid (me)." 2279 2280

2279 The entry and exit here referred to may be interpreted in four senses: (1) entry into death and exit at the resurrection: for the righteous, who have purified their souls by prayer (last verse) and spiritual teaching from the Qur-an (next verse), there is on each occasion a fuller and fuller realisation and enjoyment of truth and honour: for those who are estranged from Allah, the effect is the opposite: the truth becomes bitter and there is ignominy and exposure instead of honour: (2) entry for the holy Prophet into the new life at Madinah, which was still in the womb of futurity, and exit from the life of persecution and the milieu of falsehood, which surrounded him in his native city of Makkah still given up to idolatry: (3) referring to the impending Hijrat again, the prayer may mean, "Let it be from pure motives of truth and spiritual honour, and not from motives of anger against the city of Makkah or its persecutors, or of ambition or worldly power from the city of Madinah, which was ready to lay everything at the Prophet's feet": (4) generally, entry and exit at every stage of life. (17.80)

2280 All prayer must be for Allah's aid and authority. However much we may plan, our success must depend on His aid. However nobler our motives, we have no right to imperil any lives unless there is authority in the Word of Allah. The Prophet only acts on Allah's commission and inspiration. (17.80)

20:25 - (Moses) said: "O my Lord! expand me my breast;" 2552

20:26 - "Ease my task for me;

20:27 - "And remove the impediment from my speech. 2553

20:28 - "So they may understand what I say:

20:29 - "And give me a Minister from my family

20:30 - "Aaron my brother;

20:31 - "Add to my strength through him 2554

20:32 - "And make him share my task:

20:33 - "That we may celebrate Thy praise without stint 2555

20:34 - "And remember Thee without stint:

20:35 - For Thou art He that (ever) regardeth us." 2556

20:36 - (Allah) said: "Granted is thy prayer O Moses!"

20:114 - O my Lord! advance me in knowledge." 2639

2639 Allah is above every human event or desire. His purpose is universal. But He is the Truth, the absolute Truth; and His kingdom is the true kingdom, that can carry out its will. That Truth unfolds itself gradually, as it did in the gradual revelation of the Qur-an to the holy Prophet. But even after it was completed in a volume, its true meaning and purpose only gradually unfold themselves to any given individual or nation. No one should be impatient about it. On the contrary, we should always pray for increase in our own knowledge, which can never at any given moment be complete. (20.114)

21:89 - And (remember) Zakariya when he cried to his Lord: "O my Lord! leave me not without offspring though Thou art the best of inheritors. 2745 2746

2745 See xix. 2-15, and iii. 38-41. Zakariya was a priest; both he and his wife were devout and punctilious in their duties. They were old, and they had no son. He was troubled in mind, not so much by the vulgar desire to have a son to carry on his line, but because he felt that his people were not unselfishly devout, and there would be no sincere work for Allah unless he could train up someone himself. He was given a son Yahya (John the Baptist), who added to the devout reputation of the family, for he is called "noble, chaste, and a prophet," (iii. 39). All three, father, mother, and son, were made worthy of each other, and they repelled evil by their devout emulation in virtue. (21.89)

2746 'It is not that I crave a personal heir to myself: all things go back to Thee, and Thou art the best of inheritors: but I see no one around me sincere enough to carry on my work for Thee; wilt Thou give me one whom I can train?' (21.89)

23:93 - Say: "O my Lord! if Thou wilt show me (in my lifetime) that which they are warned against 2933

23:94 - "Then O my Lord! put me not amongst the people who do wrong!"

23:97 - And say: "O my Lord! I seek refuge with Thee from the suggestions of the Evil Ones; 2935

2935 But in any case, shun evil for yourself, and you cannot do this without seeking the help and protection of Allah. Not only must you shun all promptings of evil, but you must shun its proximity. It may be that in retaliating on evil, or even in your curiosity to discover what evil is, you may fall into evil yourself. You should avoid going near it or anything which brings it near to you. And in this matter you should seek Allah's help. (23.97)

23:98 - "And I seek refuge with Thee O my Lord! lest they should come near me."

23:106 - They will say: "Our Lord! our misfortune overwhelmed us and we became a people astray! 2945

2945 'The evil in us conquered us; it was our misfortune that we surrendered to evil, and went astray.' They forget that it was by their own deliberate choice that they surrendered to evil, and they are reminded in verses 109-110 of the ridicule with which they covered godly men in their life on earth. (23.106)

23:107 - "Our Lord! bring us out of this: if ever we return (to evil) then shall we be wrongdoers indeed!"

23:109 - "A part of My servants there was who used to pray `Our Lord! we believe; then do Thou forgive us and have mercy upon us: for Thou art the best of those Who show mercy!'

23:118 - So say: "O my Lord! grant thou forgiveness and mercy! for Thou art the Best of those who show mercy!"

25:65 - Those who say "Our Lord! avert from us the Wrath of Hell for its Wrath is indeed an affliction grievous 3125

3125 This is a prayer of humility: such a person relies, not on any good works which he may have done, but on the Grace and Mercy of Allah; and he shows a lively sense of the Day of Judgment, when every action will weigh for or against a soul. (25.65)

25:74 - And those who pray "Our Lord! grant unto us wives and offspring who will be the comfort of our eyes and give us (the grace) to lead the righteous." 3134 3135

3134 We must also pray for the maintenance of Allah's Law after us, through our wives and descendants: in our eyes they should not be mere accidents or play-things, but a real comfort and fulfilment of our spiritual longings. Perhaps, through them, as well through ourselves, we may, by Allah's grace, be able to give a lead for truth and righteousness. (25.74)

3135 Let us recapitulate the virtues of the true servants of Allah: (1) they are humble and forbearing to those below them in spiritual worth; (2) they are constantly, by adoration, in touch with Allah; (3) they always remember the Judgment in the Hereafter; (4) they are moderate in all things; (5) they avoid treason to Allah, to their fellow-creatures, and to themselves; (6) they give a wide berth not only to falsehood but to futility; (7) they pay attention, both in mind and manner, to the Signs of their Lord; (8) their ambition is to bring up their families in righteousness and to lead in all good. A fine code of individual and social ethics, a ladder of spiritual development, open to all. (25.74)

26:83 - O my Lord! bestow wisdom on me and join me with the righteous; 3178

3178 Having shown clearly the distinction between the False and the True, Abraham now shows in the formn of a Prayer what his inmost wishes are. (1) He wants his own soul entightened with divine wisdom, and (2) his heart and life filled with righteousness; (3) he will not be content with working for himself or his own generation: his view extends to all future generations; (4) and of course he wishes to attain the goal of the righteous, the Garden of the Bliss of the Divine Countenance; but he is not content with this; for (5) he wants his father and relatives to share in his spiritual joy, so that he can proudly see all whom he can reach, in an honourable station (contrasted with disgrace) on the Day of Judgment. (26.83)

26:84 - Grant me honorable mention on the tongue of truth among the latest (generations); 3179

26:85 - "Make me one of the inheritors of the Garden of Bliss;

26:86 - Forgive my father for that he is among those astray;

26:87 - "And let me not be in disgrace on the Day when (men) will be raised up

26:88 - The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail 3180

3180 Now we have a vision of the Day of Judgment. Nothing will then avail except a pure heart; all sorts of the so-called "good deeds" of this world, without the motive of purity, will be useless. The contrast of the Garden of Bliss with the Fire of Misery will be plainly visible. Evil will be shown in its true colours,-isolated, helpless, cursing and despairing; and all chances will then have been lost. (26.88)

27:19 - So he smiled amused at her speech; and he said: "O my Lord! so order me that I may be grateful for Thy favors which Thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee: and admit me by Thy Grace to the ranks of Thy righteous Servants." 3259 3260 3261

3260 The righteousness which pleases the world is often very different from the righteousness which pleases Allah. Solomon prays that he may always take Allah's Will as his standard, rather than the standards of men. (27.19)

3261 In the Kingdom of Allah, righteousness is the badge of citizenship. And although there are great and noble grades (see n. 586 to iv. 69), the base of that citizenship is the universal brotherhood of righteousness. The greatest in that Kingdom are glad and proud to pray for that essential badge. (27.19)

28:16 - He prayed: "O my Lord! I have indeed wronged my soul! Do Thou then forgive me!" So (Allah) forgave him: for He is the Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.

28:21 - He therefore got away therefrom looking about in a state of fear. He prayed: "O my Lord! save me from people given to wrongdoing." 3348

28:22 - Then when he turned his face towards (the land of) Madyan he said: "I do hope that my Lord will show me the smooth and straight Path." 3349

29:30 - He said: "O my Lord! Help Thou me against people who do mischief!"

29:46 - "We believe in the Revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you; Our Allah and your Allah is one; and it is to Him we bow (in Islam)." 3472 3473 3474

37:100 - "O my Lord! grant me a righteous (son)!"

40:7 - Our Lord! Thy reach is over all things in Mercy and Knowledge. Forgive then those who turn in repentance and follow Thy Path: and preserve them from the Penalty of the Blazing Fire! 4365 4366

40:8 - "And grant our Lord! That they enter the Gardens of Eternity which Thou hast promised to them and to the righteous among their fathers their wives and their posterity! For Thou art (He) the Exalted in Might Full of Wisdom. 4367

4367 There is nothing selfish in prayer. We pray for all who are true and sincere. But just as Evil is catching, so Goodness is catching in another sense. The associates of the Good and those near and dear to them also share in their goodness and happiness, if only they try to walk in the same Way. And the Grace of Allah is working for all, all the time. (40.8)

40:9 - "And preserve them from (all) ills; and any whom thou dost preserve from ills that Day on them wilt Thou have bestowed Mercy indeed: and that will be truly (for them) the highest Achievement. 4368 4369

4368 That is the final Judgment, and any who is saved from the evil consequences of their deeds in this life will truly have been saved by Allah's Mercy, and for them it is the highest achievement they could have, the attainment of all their wishes, the fulfilment of their destiny and the noblest purpose of their Life, the supreme Salvation and Felicity. (40.9)

40:11 - They will say:" Our Lord! twice hast Thou made us without life and twice hast Thou given us Life! Now have we recognized our sins: is there any way out (of this)?" 4371

4371 Cf. ii. 28: "How can ye reject the faith in Allah?-seeing that ye were without life, and He gave you life; then will He cause you to die, and will again bring you to life; and again to Him will ye return." Non-existence, or existence as clay without life was equivalent to death. Then came true Life on this earth; then came physical death or the cessation of our physical life; and now at the Resurrection, is the second life. (40.11)

59:10 - And those who came after them say: "Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who came before us into the Faith and leave not in our hearts rancor (or sense of injury) against those who have believed our Lord! Thou art indeed Full of Kindness Most Merciful." 5384 5385

5384 Those that came after them: the immediate meaning would refer to later arrivals in Madinah or later accessions to Islam, compared with the early Muhajirs. But the general meaning would include all future comers into the House of Islam. They pray, not only for themselves, but for all their brethren, and above all, they pray that their hearts may be purified of any desire or tendency to disparage the work or virtues of other Muslims or to feel any jealousy on account of their successes or good fortune. (59.10)

60:4 - "Our Lord! in Thee do we trust and to Thee do we turn in repentance: to Thee is (our) final Goal. 5413 5414 5415 541

5416 This prayer indicates what our attitude should be. We must trust to Allah, and not to Allah's enemies to protect and befriend ourselves, our families, or those near and dear to us. (60.4)

60:5 - "Our Lord! Make us not a (test and) trial for the Unbelievers but forgive us our Lord! For Thou art the Exalted in Might the Wise." 5417

5417 In n. 1198 to viii. 25, I have explained the shades of meaning in the word Fitnat. In ii. 102 Harut and Marut were a trial to test the righteous who trusted in Allah from the unrighteous who resorted to evil and superstition. Here the prayer to Allah is that we should be saved from becoming so weak as to tempt the Unbelievers to try to attack and destroy us. (60.5)

66:8 - "Our Lord! perfect our Light for us and grant us Forgiveness; for Thou has power over all things." 5542 5543 5544

66:11 - "O my Lord! build for me in nearness to Thee a mansion in the Garden and save me from Pharaoh and his doings and save me from those that do wrong"; 5549 5550

5549 Traditionally she is known as 'Asiya, one of the four perfect women, the other three being Mary the mother of Jesus, Khadija the wife of the holy Prophet, and Fatima his daughter. Pharaoh is the type of arrogance, godlessness, and wickedness. For his wife to have preserved her Faith, her humility, and her righteousness was indeed a great spiritual triumph. She was probably the same who saved the life of the infant Moses: xxviii. 9. (66.11)

71:26 - And Noah said: "O my Lord! Leave not of the Unbelievers a single one on earth! 5724

5724 The Flood was sent in order to purge all sin. The prayer of Noah is not vindicfive. It simply means, "Cut off all the roots of sin". See next note. (71.26)

71:27 - For if Thou dost leave (any of) them they will but mislead thy devotees and they will breed none but wicked ungrateful ones.

71:28 - "O my Lord! Forgive me my parents all who enter my house in Faith and (all) believing men and believing women: and to the wrongdoers grant Thou no increase but in Perdition!" 5725 5726

5725 Indeed he prays for himself, his parents, his guests, and all who in earnest faith turn to Allah, in all ages and in all places. Praying for their forgiveness is also praying for the destruction of sin. (71.28)

5726 This is slightly different in form from verse 24 above, where see n. 5722. See also last note. (71.28)

113:1 - Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn 6301 6302

6301 In Allah's created world, there are all kinds of forces and counter-forces, especially those put in motion by beings who have been endowed with some sort of will. The forces of good may be compared to light, and those of evil to darkness. Allah can cleave the depths of darkness and produce light (vi. 96), and therefore we should cast off fear and take refuge in divine guidance and goodness. (113.1)

6302 Falaq is the Dawn or Daybreak, the cleaving of darkness and the manifestation of light. This may be understood in various senses: (1) literally, when the darkness of the night is at its worst, rays of light pierce through and produce the dawn; (2) when the darkness of ignorance is at its worst, the light of Allah pierces through the soul and gives it enlightenment: xxiv. 35; (3) non-existence is darkness, and life and activity may be typified by light. The author and source of all true light is Allah, and if we seek Him, we are free from ignorance, superstition, fear, and every kind of evil. (113.1)

6303 See n. 6301 above. Our trust in Allah is the refuge from every kind of fear and superstition, every kind of danger and evil. Three special kinds of mischief are specified in the next three verses, against which our best guard is our trust in Allah, the Light of the heavens and the earth. They are: (1) physical dangers, typified by darkness. (2) physical dangers within us, typified by Secret Arts, and (3) physical dangers from without us, resulting from a perverted will, which seeks to destroy any good that we enjoy. (113.2)

113:2 - From the mischief of created things; 6303

6303 See n. 6301 above. Our trust in Allah is the refuge from every kind of fear and superstition, every kind of danger and evil. Three special kinds of mischief are specified in the next three verses, against which our best guard is our trust in Allah, the Light of the heavens and the earth. They are: (1) physical dangers, typified by darkness. (2) physical dangers within us, typified by Secret Arts, and (3) physical dangers from without us, resulting from a perverted will, which seeks to destroy any good that we enjoy. (113.2)

113:3 - From the mischief of Darkness as it overspreads; 6304

6304 The darkness of the night, physical darkness, is a good type of physical dangers and difficulties. Many people are afraid of physical darkness, and all are afraid of physical injuries, accidents, and calamities. We should not fear, but having taken reasonable precautions, trust in Allah. (113.3)

113:4 - From the mischief of those who practice Secret Arts; 6305

6306 Malignant envy, translated into action, seeks to destroy the happiness or the material or spiritual good enjoyed by other people. The best guard against it is trust in Allah with purity of heart. (113.5)

113:5 - And from the mischief of the envious one as he practices envy. 6306

6306 Malignant envy, translated into action, seeks to destroy the happiness or the material or spiritual good enjoyed by other people. The best guard against it is trust in Allah with purity of heart. (113.5)

114:1 -Say: I seek refuge with the Lord and Cherisher of Mankind 6307 6308

6307 The previous Sura pointed to the necessity of seeking Allah's protection against external factors which might affect an individual. Here the need of protection from internal factors, mankind being viewed as a whole, is pointed out. For this reason the threefold relation in which man stands to Allah is mentioned, as explained in the next note. (114.1)

6308 Man's relation to Allah may be viewed in three aspects: (1) Allah is his Lord, Maker, and Cherisher; Allah sustains him and cares for him; He provides him with all the means for his growth and development, and for his protection against evil; (2) Allah is his king or ruler; more than any earthly king, Allah has authority to guide man's conduct, and lead him to ways which will make for his welfare; and He has given him laws; and (3) Allah is He to Whom mankind must return, to give an account of all their deeds in this life (ii. 156); Allah will be the Judge; He is the goal of the Hereafter, and the only Being entitied to man's worship at any time. From all these aspects man could and should seek Allah's protection against evil. (114.1)

114:2 - The King (or Ruler) of Mankind

114:3 - The Allah (or Judge) of Mankind

114:4 - From the mischief of the Whisperer (of Evil) who withdraws (after his whisper) 6309

114:5 - The same) who whispers into the hearts of mankind

114:6 - Among Jinns and among Men. 6310

6309 Evil insinuates itself in all sorts of insidious ways from within so as to sap man's will, which was given to man by Allah. This power of evil may be Satan, or evil men or the evil inclinations within man's own will: for there are "evil ones among men and Jinns, inspiring each other with flowery discourses by way of deception" (vi. 112). They secretly whisper evil and then withdraw, to make their net the more subtle and alluring. (114.4)

6310 This last clause amplifies the description of the sources from which the whisper of evil may emanate: they may be men whom you may see or invisible spirits of evil working within. See last note. So long as we put ourselves in Allah's protection, and trust in Allah, evil cannot really touch us in our essential and inner life. (114.6)

Al-Muwatta Hadith
Hadith 15.30

Dua (Supplication)

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Abu Abdullah al-Agharr and from Abu Salama from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Our Lord, the Blessed and Exalted, descends every night to the heaven of this world when the last third of the night is still to come and says, 'Who will call on Me so that I may answer him? Who will ask Me so that I may give him? Who will ask forgiveness of Me so that I may forgive him?' "

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