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2:168 - O ye people! eat of what is on earth lawful and good; and do not follow the footsteps of the evil one for he is to you an avowed enemy. 169
169 We now come to the regulations about food. First (ii. 168-71) we have an appeal to all people, Muslims, Pagans, as well as the People of the Book; then (ii. 172-73) to the Muslims specially; then (ii 174-76) to the sort of men who then (as some do now) either believe in too much formalism or believe in no restrictions at all. Islam follows the Golden Mean. All well-regulated societies lay down reasonable limitations. These become incumbent on all loyal members of any given society, and show what is "lawful" in that society. But if the limitations are reasonable, as they should be, the "lawful" will also coincide more and more with what is "good." (2.168
2:172 - O ye who believe! eat of the good things that We have provided for you and be grateful to Allah if it is Him ye worship. 172
172 Gratitude for God's gifts is one form of worship. (2.172)
5:3 - Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat blood the flesh of swine and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah that which hath been killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a headlong fall or by being gored to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form); that which is sacrificed on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat) by raffling with arrows: that is impiety. This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you completed my favor upon you and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But if any forced by hunger with no inclination to transgression Allah is indeed Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful. 691 692 693 694
691 Cf. ii. 173 and nn. 173 and 174. The prohibition of dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which other names than that of Allah have been invoked, has been there explained. (5.3)
692 If an animal dies by strangling, or by a violent blow, or a headlong fall, or by being gored to death, or by being attacked by a wild animal, the presumption is that it becomes carrion, as the life-blood is congealed before being taken out of the body. But the presumption can be rebutted. If the life-blood still flows and the solemn mode of slaughter (zabh in the name of Allah is carried out, it becomes lawful as food. (5.3)
693 This was also an idolatrous rite, different from that in which a sacrifice was devoted to a particular idol or a false god. (5.3)
5:4 - - They ask thee what is lawful to them (as food): say: Lawful unto you are (all) things good and pure: and what ye have taught your trained hunting animals (to catch) in the manner directed to you by Allah; eat what they catch for you but pronounce the name of Allah over it: and fear Allah; for Allah is swift in taking account. 697 698
697 The previous verse was negative; it defined what was not lawful for food, viz., things gross, or disgusting, or dedicated to superstition. This verse is positive: it defines what is lawful, viz., all things that are good and pure. (5.4)
698 In the matter of the killing for meat, the general rule is that the name of Allah, the true God should be pronounced as a rite in order to call our attention to the fact that we do not take life thoughtlessly but solemnly for food, with the permission of Allah, to whom we render the life back. The question of hunting is then raised. How can this solemn rite be performed when we send forth trained hawks, trained hounds, or trained cheetahs or other animals trained for the chase? They must necessarily kill at some distance from their masters. Their game is legalised on these conditions: (1) that they are trained to kill, not merely for their own appetite, or out of mere wantonness, but for their master's food; the training implies that something of the solemnity which Allah has taught us in this matter goes into their action; and (2) we are to pronounce the name of Allah overthe quarry; this is interpreted to mean that the Takbir should be pronounced when the hawk or dog, etc., is released to the quarry. (5.4)
5:5 - This day are (all) things good and pure made lawful unto you. The food of the People of the Book is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them. (Lawful unto you in marriage) are (not only) chaste women who are believers but chaste women among the People of the Book revealed before your time when ye give them their due dowers and desire chastity not lewdness nor secret intrigues. If anyone rejects faith fruitless is his work and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritual good). 699 700 701
699 The question is for food generally, such as is ordinarily "good and pure": in the matter of meat it should be killed with some sort of solemnity analogous to that of the Takbir. The rules of Islam in this respect being analogous to those of the People of the Book, there is no objection to mutual recognition, as opposed to meat killed by Pagans with superstitious rites. In this respect the Christian rule is the same: "That ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication." (Acts, xv. 29). Notice the bracketing of fornication with things unlawful to eat. (5.5)
700 Islam is not exclusive. Social intercourse, including inter-marriage, is permitted with the People of the Book. A Muslim man may marry a woman from their ranks on the same terms as he would marry a Muslim woman, i.e., he must give her an economic and moral status, and must not be actuated merely by motives of lust or physical desire. A Muslim woman may not marry a non-Muslim man, because her Muslim status would be affected; the wife ordinarily takes the nationality and status given by her husband's law. Any man or woman, of any race or faith, may, on accepting Islam, freely marry any Muslim woman or man, provided it be from motives of purity and chastity and not of lewdness. (5.5)
701 As always, food, cleanliness, social intercourse, marriage and other interests in life, are linked with our duty to Allah and faith in Him. Duty and faith are for our own benefit, here and in the Hereafter. (5.5)
6:118 - So eat of (meats) on which Allah's name hath been pronounced if ye have faith in His Signs.
6:119 - Why should ye not eat of (meats) on which Allah's name hath been pronounced when He hath explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you except under compulsion of necessity? But many do mislead (men) by their appetites unchecked by knowledge. Thy Lord knoweth best those who transgress. 944
944 Cf. v. 4. When a clear law has explained what is lawful and unlawful in food, it is wrong to raise fresh scruples and mislead the ignorant. (6.119)
6:121 - Eat not of (meats) on which Allah's name hath not been pronounced: that would be impiety. But the evil ones ever inspire their friends to contend with you; if ye were to obey them ye would indeed be pagans.
16:114 - So eat of the sustenance which Allah has provided for you lawful and good; and be grateful for the favors of Allah if it is He whom ye serve. 2151
2151 Ingratitude for Allah's sustenance (in the literal and figurative senses) may be shown in various ways, e.g., (1) by forgetting or refusing to acknowledge the true source of the bounty, viz., Allah, (2) by misusing or misapplying the bounty, as by committing excesses in things lawful, or refusing to share them with others of Allah's creatures when the need arises, or (3) by falsely ascribing to Allah any prohibitions we may set up for ourselves for special reasons or because of our special idiosyncrasies. (16.114)
16:115 - He has only forbidden you dead meat and blood and the flesh of swine and any (food) over which the name of other than Allah has been invoked. But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits then Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful. 2152
2152 Cf. ii. 173 and notes, v. 3-4, and vi. 121 and 138-146. (16.115)
24:61 - it is no fault in the blind nor in one born lame nor in one afflicted with illness nor in yourselves that ye should eat in your own houses or those of your fathers or your mothers or your brothers or your sisters or your father's brothers or your father's sisters or your mother's brothers or your mother's sisters or in houses of which the keys are in your possession or in the house of a sincere friend of yours: there is no blame on you whether ye eat in company or separately. But if ye enter houses salute each other a greeting or blessing and purity as from Allah. Thus does Allah make clear the Signs to you: that ye may understand. 3042 3043 3044
3042 There were various Arab superstitions and fancies which are combated and rejected here. (1) The blind, or the halt, or those afflicted with serious disease were supposed to be objects of divine displeasure, and as such not fit to be associated with us in meals in our houses: we are not to entertain such a thought, as we are not judges of the causes of people's misfortunes, which deserve our sympathy and kindness. (2) It was considered unbecoming to take meals in the houses of near relatives: this taboo is not approved. (3) A similar superstition about houses in our possession but not in our actual occupation is disapproved. (4) If people think they should not fall under obligation to casual friends, that does not apply to a sincere friend, in whose company a meal is not to be rejected, but welcomed. (5) If people make a superstition either that they should always eat separately, or that they must always eat in company, as some people weary of their own company think, either of them is wrong. Man is free and should regulate his life according to needs and circumstances. (24.61)
3043 The shades of meaning in Salam are explained in n. 2512 to xix. 62. Here, we were first told that we might accept hospitality and good fellowship in each other's houses. Now we are told what spirit should animate us in doing so. It should not be a spirit only of self-satisfaction in a worldly sense. It should rather be a spirit of good-will in the highest spiritual sense of the term-purity of motives and purity of life, as in the sight of Allah. (24.61)
3044 See notes 3039 and 3041 above. The refrain comes again, in a different form, closing the argument from a different point of view. (24.61)
51:27 - And placed it before them... He said "Will ye not eat?"
51:28 - (When they did not eat) He conceived a fear of them. They said "Fear not" and they gave him glad tidings of a son endowed with knowledge.
77:43 - "Eat ye and drink ye to your heart's content: for that ye worked (Righteousness)." 5885
5885 The fruits of righteousness are contentment in this life and the supreme Bliss in the next. (77.43)
77:46 - (O ye Unjust!) Eat ye and enjoy yourselves (but) a little while for that ye are Sinners. 5886
5886 "Eat" is symbolical of having the good things of life in this world. It may be that they are only given for a trial. Because their minds and wishes run to wrong things, the opportunities for wrong are multiplied, as the impetus for good or for evil increases progressively. They are asked to believe and repent. But if they do not, they are to be pitied, even for the good things of this life, for they will come to an evil End in the Hereafter. (77.46)
Eating Carrion when Forced to, out of Necessity
Yahya related to me from Malik that the best of what he had heard about a man who is forced by necessity to eat carrion is that he ate it until he was full and then he took provision from it. If he found something which would enable him to dispense with it, he threw it away.
Malik when asked whether or not a man who had been forced by necessity to eat carrion, should eat it when he also found the fruit, crops or sheep of a people in that place, answered, "If he thinks that the owners of the fruit, crops, or sheep will believe his necessity so that he will not be deemed a thief and have his hand cut off, then I think that he should eat from whatever he finds that which will remove his hunger but he should not carry any of it away. I prefer that he does that than that he eat carrion. If he fears that he will not be believed, and will be deemed a thief for what he has taken, then I think that it is better for him to eat the carrion, and he has leeway to eat carrion in this respect. Even so, I fear that someone who is not forced by necessity to eat carrion might exceed the limits out of a desire to consume other peoples' property, crops or fruit."
Malik said, "That is the best of what I have heard."
Sunan of Abu-Dawood
Hadith 3744 Narrated by
Abdullah Ibn Abbas
When the verse: "O ye who believe! eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities, but let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good will" was revealed, a man thought it a sin to eat in the house of another man after the revelation of this verse. Then this (injunction) was revealed by the verse in Surat an-Nur: "No blame on you whether you eat in company or separately." When a rich man (after revelation) invited a man from his people to eat food in his house, he would say: I consider it a sin to eat from it, and he said: a poor man is more entitled to it than I. The Arabic word tajannah means sin or fault. It was then declared lawful to eat something on which the name of Allah was mentioned, and it was made lawful to eat the flesh of an animal slaughtered by the people of the Book.
Eating on the two 'ids
One is to eat before going to the salah for 'idul fitr, (the end of Ramadan) but not do so on the occasion of the 'idul adha (commemmorating Prophet Ibrahim's sacrifice). For 'idul fitr, it is a sunnah to eat an odd number of dates before going to pray salatul 'id while for 'idul adha the eating should be delayed until one returns from the 'id prayers and then he may eat of his sacrifice if he has sacrificed an animal.
Anas reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the festival of breaking the fast until he had eaten an odd number of dates." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari.
Buraidah reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the day of breaking the fast ('idul fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice ('idul adha) he would not eat until he had returned [from salah]." This is related by at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, and also by Ahmad who added: "And he would eat from his sacrifice."
In al-Muwatta' it is recorded from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab that the people were ordered to eat before they go out on the day of breaking the fast.
Ibn-Qudamah said: "I do not know of any difference of opinion over the fact that one should hasten in eating [eat early] on the day of breaking of the fast."
Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith
Hadith 7.393 Narrated by
Adi bin Hatim
The Prophet said, "If you let loose your hound after a game and mention Allah's Name on sending it, and the hound catches the game and kills it, then you can eat of it. But if the hound eats of it, then you should not eat thereof, for the hound has caught it for itself. And if along with your hound, join other hounds, and Allah's Name was not mentioned at the time of their sending, and they catch an animal and kill it, you should not eat of it, for you will not know which of them has killed it. And if you have thrown an arrow at the game and then find it (dead) two or three days later and, it bears no mark other than the wound inflicted by your arrow, then you can eat of it. But if the game is found (dead) in water, then do not eat of it." And it has also been narrated by 'Adi bin Hatim that he asked the Prophet "If a hunter throws an arrow at the game and after tracing it for two or three days he finds it dead but still bearing his arrow, (can he eat of it)?" The Prophet replied, "He can eat if he wishes."
Eating the Meat of the Sacrificial Animal
Allah commands Muslims to eat of the animals slaughtered in sacrifice: "...eat you thereof and feed such as (beg not but) live in contentment and such as beg with due humility." (Qur'an 22.36)
Apparently this commandment applies to both the obligatory and supererogatory sacrifice. There is some disagreement among the jurists on this subject. Abu Hanifah and Ahmad are of the opinion that one may eat of the sacrifice made for Hajj Tamattu' (In which Hajj and 'Umrah are combined with a break) or Hajj Qiran (In which Hajj and 'Umrah are combined without a break) or one that is offered voluntarily, but one may not eat of any other sacrifice.
Malik holds that one may eat of an animal sacrificed as a penalty for violating one's previous Hajj, or that which is sacrificed for missing one's Hajj, or a sacrifice offered by one performing Hajj Tamattu ', or any other animal offered in sacrifice, except a sacrifice offered as an atonement for killing a game or one that is vowed for the poor, and that which is offered voluntarily except when (it is feared) the animal will be spoiled before arriving at its place of slaughter.
Ash-Shafi'i holds that one is not permitted to eat of an obligatory sacrifice, e.g. an obligatory sacrifice olfered in penalty, or a sacrifice made for killing a game, or one that is offered for spoiling one ' s Hajj, or one offered for Hajj Tamattu' or Hajj Qiran, and likewise that which one has vowed. In case of a voluntary sacrifice, however, one may eat thereof himself as well as give it to others.
Game that is Not Halal to Eat in Ihram
Yahya related to me from Malik, from Hisham ibn Urwa, from his father, that A'isha, umm al-muminin, said to him, "Son of my sister, it is only for ten nights, so if you get an urge to do something, leave it," by which she meant eating game-meat.
Malik said that if game was hunted forthe sake of a man who is in ihram and it was prepared for him and he ate some of it knowing that it had been hunted for his sake, then he had to pay a forfeit for all of the game that had been hunted on his behalf.
Malik was asked about whether someone who was forced to eat carrion while he was in ihram should hunt game and then eat that rather than the carrion, and he said, "It is better for him to eat the carrion, because Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, has not given permission for someone in ihram to either eat game or take it in any situation, but He has made allowances for eating carrion when absolutely necessary."
Malik said, "It is not halal for anyone, whether in ihram or not, to eat game which has been killed or sacrificed by some one in ihram, because, whether it was killed deliberately or by mistake, it was not done in a halal manner, and so eating it is not halal. I have heard this from more than one person. Somebody who kills game and then eats it only has to make a single kaffara, which is the same as for somebody who kills game but does not eat any of it."
Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith
Hadith 7.387 Narrated by
Abu Thalaba Al Khushani
I said, "O Allah's Prophet! We are living in a land ruled by the people of the Scripture; Can we take our meals in their utensils? In that land there is plenty of game and I hunt the game with my bow and with my hound that is not trained and with my trained hound. Then what is lawful for me to eat?" He said, "As for what you have mentioned about the people of the Scripture, if you can get utensils other than theirs, do not eat out of theirs, but if you cannot get other than theirs, wash their utensils and eat out of it. If you hunt an animal with your bow after mentioning Allah's Name, eat of it. and if you hunt something with your trained hound after mentioning Allah's Name, eat of it, and if you hunt something with your untrained hound (and get it before it dies) and slaughter it, eat of it."